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  Forest fire becomes a nationwide problem. It engages all local people throughout the country. The problem basically comes from grass-root level and is strongly influenced by social and economical conditions of each community. To cope with this problem effectively, all concerned agencies either from state or private sectors must actively participate. Moreover full cooperation from all local people is of utmost importance. Therefore, obtaining cooperation from all walks of life is the key toward
success in fire management. However, taking any action requires budget especially in fighting fire which is one of the most costly operation. This fact always becomes major constraint once any cooperation among Institutions take place.

1.Cooperation with Armed Forces

Military has high potential to support fire control operation. During El Ninoís years when the country encountered severe fires, the military supply manpower as well as heavy machinery particularly aircraft to help fighting fire. Currently, the Armed Forces maintain the following aircraft ready to fight fires. (Table 8)

Table 7. Armed Forcesís aircrafts ready to fight fires.

Armed Forces

Aircraft Type

Fighting Eguipment

No. of Unit

Royal Army

Bell CH-47(Shinook)

Bell-205 (Huey)

Bambi bucket

(9,800 litres)

Bambi bucket

(1,500 litres)




Royal Navy

CL-215(Amphibian) Built-in tank

(5,443 litres)


Air Force

C-130 (Hercules)


BT-67 (Dagota)


(11,355 litres)

Built-in tank

(4,000 litres)




  However the Nation Park, wildlife and Plant Conservation Department has to shoulder the enormous cost of operations. Therefore the department is not be able to maintain such cooperation on a regular basis.

2.Cooperation with the Ministry of Interior.

The Ministry of Interior has played an obvious roles in addressing forest fire. Currently there are Provincial Forest Fire Control Committee in every province. Unfortunately the functions of such committee still concentrates on administrative as well as coordination aspects.

3.Cooperation with Non-Government Organization

   There is still little cooperation between state and NGOs as far as fire control is concerned. All of this cooperation is in small scale and at the local level. Most of the NGOs roles in fire management are in fire prevention campaign aspect. Few NGOs also support a small-scale community-based fire management in some particular villages.

4 Cooperation with Rural Community

Fire problem will not be solved without full cooperation from local people. The Royal Forest Department has launched all its efforts to obtain people participation in fire management. Approximately 10,000 fire volunteers are trained annually. Unfortunately, the poor attitude towards forest fire is greatly due to the fact that fire damage is limited mainly to state properties and not likely to threaten lives and properties of people. Therefore without financial incentive or other direct interests, the concept of fire volunteer does not work well in this country.